Andrology


The main methods of surgical sperm retrieval (for those not having enough sperm in the seminal fluid ) available include


PESA: Percutaneous Epididymal Sperm Aspiration.


MESA: Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration.


TESA: Testicular Sperm Aspiration. This includes testicular fine needle Aspiration (TFNA)


TESE: Testicular Sperm Extraction.


Microdissection TESE.